Harvard transfer essay examples



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Portions of his web site have been archived and others have been moved to homes not affiliated with Emory University. If there is other information you are searching for, please let us know so that we can provide you with the information you are looking for as soon as possible. Jump to navigation Jump to search For resettlement of UNHCR refugees, see Third country resettlement. Population transfer or resettlement is the movement of a large group of people from one region to another, often a form of forced migration imposed by state policy or international authority and most frequently on the basis of ethnicity or religion but also due to economic development. Often the affected population is transferred by force to a distant region, perhaps not suited to their way of life, causing them substantial harm.

In addition, the loss of all immovable property and, when rushed, the loss of substantial amounts of movable property, is implied. This transfer may be motivated by the more powerful party’s desire to make other uses of the land in question or, less often, by disastrous environmental or economic conditions that require relocation. In Europe, the last major population transfer was the deportation of 800,000, and displacement of 250,000 other ethnic Albanians, during the Kosovo war in 1999. Population exchange is the transfer of two populations in opposite directions at about the same time. In theory at least, the exchange is non-forcible, but the reality of the effects of these exchanges has always been unequal, and at least one half of the so-called “exchange” has usually been forced by the stronger or richer participant. According to the political scientist Norman Finkelstein, population transfer was considered as an acceptable solution to the problems of ethnic conflict until around World War II and even for a time afterward. Transfer was considered a drastic but “often necessary” means to end an ethnic conflict or ethnic civil war.

Population transfer differs more than simply technically from individually motivated migration, but at times of war, the act of fleeing from danger or famine often blurs the differences. Forced removal under apartheid, Mogopa, Western Transvaal, South Africa, February 1984. The view of international law on population transfer underwent considerable evolution during the 20th century. Prior to World War II, many major population transfers were the result of bilateral treaties and had the support of international bodies such as the League of Nations. The tide started to turn when the Charter of the Nuremberg Trials of German Nazi leaders declared forced deportation of civilian populations to be both a war crime and a crime against humanity. That opinion was progressively adopted and extended through the remainder of the century. There is now little debate about the general legal status of involuntary population transfers: “Where population transfers used to be accepted as a means to settle ethnic conflict, today, forced population transfers are considered violations of international law.