Oral storytelling is the earliest method for sharing narratives. Along with exposition, argumentation, and description, narration, broadly defined, is one of four rhetorical modes of discourse. Owen Flanagan of Duke University, a narrative essay examples tagalog consciousness researcher, writes, “Evidence strongly suggests that humans in all cultures come to cast their own identity in some sort of narrative form. Stories are an important aspect of culture.
In On Realism in Art Roman Jakobson argues that literature exists as a separate entity. He and many other semioticians prefer the view that all texts, whether spoken or written, are the same, except that some authors encode their texts with distinctive literary qualities that distinguish them from other forms of discourse. How is it manifested as art, cinema, theater, or literature? Why is narrative divided into different genres, such as poetry, short stories, and novels? In literary theoretic approach, narrative is being narrowly defined as fiction-writing mode in which the narrator is communicating directly to the reader. But novels, lending a number of voices to several characters in addition to narrator’s, created a possibility of narrator’s views differing significantly from the author’s views. Todorov’s narrative model that views all narratives in a cyclical manner, and that each narrative is characterized by a three part structure that allows the narrative to progress.
Other critiques of literary theory in narrative challenge the very role of literariness in narrative, as well as the role of narrative in literature. Meaning, narratives and their associated aesthetics, emotions, and values have the ability to operate without the presence of literature and vice versa. A writer’s choice in the narrator is crucial for the way a work of fiction is perceived by the reader. A writer may choose to let several narrators tell the story from different points of view. Then it is up to the reader to decide which narrator seems most reliable for each part of the story. See for instance the works of Louise Erdrich.
In Indigenous American communities, narratives and storytelling are often told by a number of elders in the community. In this way, the stories are never static because they are shaped by the relationship between narrator and audience. Thus, each individual story may have countless variations. Narrators often incorporate minor changes in the story in order to tailor the story to different audiences.
The use of multiple narratives in a story is not simply a stylistic choice, but rather an interpretive one that offers insight into the development of a larger social identity and the impact that has on the overarching narrative, as explained by Lee Haring. Haring provides an example from the Arabic folktales of A Thousand and One Nights to illustrate how framing was used to loosely connect each story to the next, where each story was enclosed within the larger narrative. I’ll tell you what I’ll do,” said the smith. I’ll fix your sword for you tomorrow, if you tell me a story while I’m doing it. Narrative is a highly aesthetic art. Thoughtfully composed stories have a number of aesthetic elements.